Embracing the safe Crypto Assets: Regulators are on it

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Digital assets have emerged as a new frontier in the financial ecosystem, characterized by rapid innovation and decentralization. In recent years, institutional and retail adoption has accelerated the expansion of the crypto-assets space, leading to increased scale and complexity. This growth has underscored the immediate need for comprehensive global regulations that prioritize consumer protection and safeguards financial stability.

The Block Research’s Trends in Regulation of Digital Assets report provides an extensive analysis of the regulatory landscape and enforcement actions surrounding cryptocurrencies in the United States and various international jurisdictions. The aim is to understand the complexity of regulations, asset classification, and the impact on crypto-related businesses and third parties.

Regulatory Landscape

This section provides an overview of the regulatory landscape for digital assets in various jurisdictions, including the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The report highlights the differences in regulatory approaches and the challenges faced by regulators in developing effective frameworks for digital assets. The report also discusses the role of international organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) in shaping global regulatory standards.

Regulatory complexity and asset class ambiguity

The regulatory complexity and asset class ambiguity refer to the challenges and uncertainties surrounding the classification and regulation of digital assets. This includes the struggle of traditional regulatory approaches to capture the unique nuances and intricacies of this emerging asset class, as well as the wide range of products, services, and market participants within the digital asset ecosystem.

The report delves into the complexities arising from differing regulatory approaches and classifications of digital assets by various regulatory bodies in the United States.

For instance, the Internal Revenue Service treats digital assets as property for tax purposes, while the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) enforces anti-money laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) protocols, considering digital assets as money.

Additionally, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is examining how digital assets can be categorized as commodities, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) primarily classifies them as securities. This multiplicity of classifications creates ambiguity and challenges for businesses operating in the digital asset space

This highlights the need for further development in addressing crypto-native concepts like DeFi regulations, reflecting the ongoing complexities and uncertainties in regulating digital assets.

Regulation by enforcement

It is a reactive strategy where enforcement actions are used to clarify and impose regulatory standards, rather than relying on rulemaking or guidance. In the context of the crypto industry, the SEC has utilized this approach by defining crypto-assets as securities and leveraging existing regulatory frameworks, such as the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, to justify enforcement actions.

The developments in regulation by enforcement include recent SEC enforcement actions that have shown that state licenses do not provide complete immunity from regulatory scrutiny, underscoring the importance of additional legal considerations.

The report also highlights the differing approaches of the CFTC and the SEC in their enforcement actions within the crypto industry. The CFTC has acknowledged the utility of crypto market participants, while the SEC has expressed skepticism about the asset class and its suitability for retail investors. This has led to debates over the classification of digital assets, with the SEC primarily classifying them as securities, a classification opposed by crypto-natives due to the strict regulatory rules it entails.

Number of SEC Cryptocurrency Enforcement Actions 2013 – 2023 YTD

Banking uncertainty for crypto firms

Cryptocurrency-related businesses are facing challenges and uncertainties in establishing and maintaining banking relationships.

The report highlights the impact of recent banking uncertainty faced by crypto firms, particularly in the context of the closure and FDIC receivership of crypto-friendly banks, which has had significant impacts on the crypto industry.

The joint statement on crypto-asset risks to banking organizations emphasizes the need to prevent risks associated with crypto-asset activities from migrating to the banking system. This reflects the concerns surrounding the potential impact of crypto-asset activities on traditional banking institutions and the need for careful review and consideration of proposals regarding such activities.

Furthermore, the report stresses the importance of additional safeguards to ensure consistent standards and regulatory stability across industries, particularly in light of potential risks for retail customers, such as the inability to withdraw fiat if a crypto platform loses its banking partner.

This underscores the challenges faced by crypto firms in maintaining stable and reliable banking relationships, which are essential for their operations and the broader crypto ecosystem.

Impact on crypto businesses

The US regulatory approach has impacted various crypto-related parties, including:

  1. Crypto Firms and Exchanges: Crypto firms and exchanges are directly impacted by the evolving regulatory landscape in the US. They must navigate compliance requirements, regulatory scrutiny, and potential enforcement actions, which can influence their operations, market offerings, and strategic decision-making
  2. Investors and Retail Customers: The regulatory approach affects investors and retail customers engaging with crypto assets. Regulatory developments can influence the availability of certain crypto products and services, impact investor protections, and shape the overall investment environment for retail participants
  3. Technology and Service Providers: Third-party technology firms, legal and compliance service providers, and other entities supporting the crypto industry are impacted by the regulatory environment. They must adapt their offerings to align with regulatory requirements and provide solutions that enable crypto firms to meet compliance standards
  4. Financial Institutions: Traditional financial institutions are impacted by the regulatory approach, particularly as they assess and manage risks associated with crypto-asset activities. The regulatory landscape influences the extent to which financial institutions engage with crypto firms and integrate crypto-related services into their offerings
  5. Market Participants and Innovators: The regulatory approach can influence market participants and innovators within the crypto industry, shaping the development of new products, services, and market dynamics. Regulatory clarity and compliance requirements impact the ability of market participants to innovate and operate within the US market.

Overall, the US regulatory approach has a broad impact on a range of stakeholders within the crypto ecosystem, influencing the activities, compliance obligations, and market interactions of various crypto-related parties.

International Jurisdiction

The international jurisdictions landscape regarding crypto regulation encompasses diverse approaches and initiatives adopted by countries and regions worldwide. Some key aspects of this landscape include:

  1. Varied Regulatory Frameworks: Jurisdictions have adopted varied regulatory frameworks to address the challenges associated with crypto-assets. While some have proactively published comprehensive regulatory frameworks, others have taken a more reactive enforcement approach, leading to a heterogeneous global regulatory environment
  2. Global Regulatory Developments: International jurisdictions have responded to significant crypto-related incidents by actively developing and updating regulatory frameworks for crypto-assets. The focus is on achieving a balanced approach that brings clarity to businesses and market participants. This includes delegating regulatory authority to specific agencies, setting clear boundaries, and emphasizing the regulation of stablecoins
  3. Regional Initiatives: Regions such as the European Union, the Middle East, the United Kingdom, Asia, and Latin America have introduced region-specific regulatory initiatives aimed at addressing the dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of crypto-assets. For example, the EU introduced the Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA) regulation, which aims to establish a comprehensive framework for crypto regulation, covering various types of tokens and service providers
  4. Regulatory Challenges and Considerations: The international jurisdictions landscape highlights the challenges and considerations associated with regulating the diverse range of products, services, and market participants within the digital asset ecosystem. These challenges include addressing nuances specific to cryptocurrencies, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), exchanges, metaverse, and wallets, and navigating the complexities of overlapping and complex existing laws and regulations.

Overall, the international jurisdictions landscape reflects a dynamic and evolving regulatory environment, with countries and regions adopting diverse approaches to address the regulatory challenges posed by the emergence of crypto-assets.


  1. Focus on Safer Assets: Firms are looking into opportunities in “safer” assets and products with clearer regulatory precedents. This includes derivative products based on Bitcoin and Ether, such as futures and options, which have been gradually gaining approval from regulatory bodies to be traded on regulated marketplaces
  2. Reduction in U.S. Exposure: The regulatory environment in the US has been evolving rapidly, leading some firms to consider reducing their exposure to the US market. This may involve shifting operations to other jurisdictions with more favorable regulatory environments or exploring alternative business models
  3. Segregation of Activities: Firms may consider segregating their activities to minimize regulatory risks and ensure compliance with evolving regulatory requirements. This may involve separating activities related to crypto-assets from traditional financial services or creating separate entities to manage different aspects of the business

Overall, the report highlights the dynamic and rapidly evolving nature of the regulatory environment surrounding crypto-assets. As the industry continues to grow and mature, stakeholders must navigate a complex and heterogeneous regulatory landscape, adapting to changing regulatory requirements and considering potential industry developments to ensure compliance and manage regulatory risks.


In conclusion, the Trends in Regulation of Digital Assets report provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulatory landscape and enforcement actions surrounding cryptocurrencies in various jurisdictions.

The report highlights the challenges faced by regulators in developing effective frameworks for digital assets and the importance of collaboration between regulators, industry participants, and other stakeholders.

It emphasizes the need for comprehensive and coordinated global regulatory frameworks that prioritize consumer protection and safeguard financial stability. As the digital asset ecosystem continues to evolve, it is essential for regulators to stay informed and adapt to new challenges and opportunities.

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